cardiovascular health


Anti-atherogenic effects of resveratrol PDF Print E-mail

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 May 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Anti-atherogenic effects of resveratrol.

Ramprasath VR, Jones PJ.

Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Abstract

Resveratrol (RS), a polyphenol compound found in grapes and grape products, including wine, peanuts and berries, exists in cis- and trans-isomeric forms. RS is believed to decrease circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, it is possible that RS has other mechanisms to reduce the risk of CVD without altering lipid levels. The objective of this review is to critically examine results from recent research concerning potential effects of RS on CVD. RS exerts several health benefits including anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. RS may also prevent lipid oxidation, platelet aggregation, arterial vasodilation and modulates the levels of lipids and lipoproteins. As a potent, anti-oxidant RS reduces oxidative stress and regenerates alpha-tocopherol, which further strengthens the anti-oxidant defense mechanism. RS has been considered safe as no significant toxic effects have been identified, even when consumed at higher concentrations. This evidence identified RS as an effective anti-atherogenic agent, which could be used in the prevention and treatment of CVD.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 19 May 2010; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2010.77.

 
The influence of alcohol consumed with a meal on endothelial function in healthy individuals. PDF Print E-mail

The influence of alcohol consumed with a meal on endothelial function in healthy individuals.

Hampton SM, Isherwood C, Kirkpatrick VJ, Lynne-Smith AC, Griffin BA.

Division of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

Abstract Background: Alcohol and polyphenols in wine and fruit juices have been strongly implicated in the favourable effects on of these beverages on vascular function. Despite a wealth of information on the metabolic and vascular effects of alcohol and polyphenols, the combined influences of these substances on vascular function, especially when consumed with food, is poorly understood. A study was designed to determine the effects of a phenolic-rich grape juice, with or without alcohol, on vascular endothelial function in the postprandial state. Methods: Ten subjects consumed a standard meal with a test drink on three separate occasions. On each occasion, the test drink accompanying the meal was either red grape juice, red grape juice plus alcohol (12% v/v), or water. Endothelial function was measured by flow mediated dilatation (FMD) prior to then 30 and 60 minutes after consuming the meal. Blood samples were taken for the determination of plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (TAG) and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) at regular intervals. Results: There was a significant effect of the three treatments (P = 0.0026) and time (P = 0.021) on percentage FMD. The meals with the grape juice and grape juice plus alcohol produced similar FMD responses but were both significantly greater than the meal with water. The concentration of plasma glucose, TAG and NEFA were similar after each treatment. Conclusion: Alcohol had no effect on vascular function in the early postprandial phase. These findings provide new evidence to support the potential benefit of non-alcoholic components within alcoholic beverages on vascular function in the fed state.

 

 
Alcohol and coronary heart disease in hypertensive men PDF Print E-mail

Am J Cardiol. 2009 Oct 1;104(7):932-5.

Relation of alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease in hypertensive male physicians (from the Physicians' Health Study).

Britton KA, Gaziano JM, Sesso HD, Djoussé L.  Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology and Research Information Center (MAVERIC), Boston Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA. This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Alcohol has diverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Moderate drinking is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, yet increasing amounts of alcohol consumption are known to increase blood pressure. These opposing effects have led to interest in the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with hypertension. To test the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption decreases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with hypertension, we used data on 5,164 participants in the Physicians' Health Study who were apparently healthy and free of CHD at baseline. Incident MI was ascertained by annual follow-up questionnaires and validated through review of medical records. Cox proportional hazard model was used to compute multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. From 1982 to 2008, 623 cases of MI occurred. Compared to subjects consuming <1 drink per week, hazard ratios for MI were 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.28), 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.97), and 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.95) for alcohol consumption of 1 to 4, 5 to 7, and >8 drinks per week adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, exercise, diabetes, multivitamin use, vegetable intake, breakfast cereal intake, and cholesterol (p for trend <0.0022). Similar inferences could be made for the secondary outcomes of angina pectoris and any CHD (which included MI, angina pectoris, and previous revascularization). In conclusion, our data demonstrated an inverse relation between moderate alcohol consumption and CHD in hypertensive men.

PMCID: PMC2749239 [Available on 2010/10/1]

PMID: 19766759 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

 

 
Alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among hypertensive women PDF Print E-mail

Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2009 Dec 31. [Epub ahead of print]

Alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among hypertensive women.

Bos S, Grobbee DE, Boer JM, Verschuren WM, Beulens JW. aJulius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht bCentre for Nutrition and Health cCentre for Prevention and Health Services Research, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

AIM: This study investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among 10 530-hypertensive women from the EPIC-NL cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire and participants were followed for occurrence of CVD. During 9.4 years follow-up, we documented 580 coronary heart disease (CHD) events and 254 strokes, 165 of which were ischemic. An inverse association (Ptrend=0.009) between alcohol consumption and risk of CHD was observed with a multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-1.01) for those consuming 70-139.9 g alcohol/week compared to lifetime abstainers. Of different beverages, only red wine consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CHD. A U-shaped relation (P=0.08) was observed for total stroke with a hazard ratio of 0.65 (0.44-0.95) for consuming 5-69.9 g alcohol/week compared with lifetime abstainers. Similar results were observed for ischemic stroke with a hazard ratio of 0.56 (0.35-0.89) for consuming of 5-69.9 g alcohol/week. CONCLUSION: We conclude that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CHD among hypertensive women. Light alcohol consumption tended to be related to a lower risk of stroke. Current guidelines for alcohol consumption in the general population also apply to hypertensive women.

PMID: 20051869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

 

 

 
Alcohol and cardiovascular health PDF Print E-mail

Arthur L. Klatsky, MD is a Senior Consultant in Cardiology and an Adjunct Investigator at the Division of Research at the Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Oakland, California.  He has done extensive research on the effects of alcohol on cardiovascular health.  He and his colleagues published the seminal article, “Alcohol consumption before myocardial infarction. Results from the Kaiser-Permanente epidemiologic study of myocardial infarction” in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1974. Since then, Dr. Klatsky has published numerous articles on the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and breast cancer.

 
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